What is B2C?
B2C is the short name for Business-to-Consumer Marketing. This includes all measures which are intended to win over private consumers for products or services. B2C therefore describes those marketing relationships that occur in transactions between consumers and companies. The target group for B2C marketing is rather broad.
- Is characterised by a broad orientation
- Takes rather emotional purchase decisions into account
- Customer should become a buyer as soon as possible
Goals and instruments of B2C marketing
In business with private customers, a targeted approach is generally hardly possible due to the large number of potential buyers. For this reason, B2C marketing is naturally very broadly oriented due to its target group and all marketing measures must be adapted accordingly in practice. For example, the purchasing decisions of private customers are less rational than those of corporate customers (on which, by contrast, B2B marketing is geared). In B2C marketing, products are often advertised for the end consumer, which usually do not require a more detailed explanation. After all, the user should be able to decide to buy the product quite quickly. Purchasing decisions in the area of individuals, couples and families are usually made with little time to think, including quite a few purchases “in the heat of the moment”. Emotional triggers are therefore used, as well as various offers that are subject to a time limit. Even though financial considerations do play a certain role for customers, a purely rational calculation (such as those made by companies in B2B) is not very likely. This is why experienced B2C marketers place particular emphasis on the psychology of B2C marketing. An essential part of B2C marketing is the knowledge of the relevant target groups and the appropriate reaction after purchases (evaluations, suggestions for improvement, criticism etc.). That is why social media and similar platforms also play an important role, not least with regard to further interactions between suppliers and customers.
The set screws in B2C marketing
B2C measures can be managed through four basic areas: Product policy, pricing policy, distribution policy and communication policy. One of the decisive factors is, of course, price, no matter which product is offered. However, in private customer business the price is usually assessed subjectively. For example, as is well known, it is not uncommon for a company to be prepared to pay a much higher price for a certain branded product, even if there are no real advantages over other products. The pricing policy of competitors and, of course, ones own production costs must also be taken into account. Tried and tested measures are threshold prices or even discount campaigns that are limited in time – the buyer gains the impression here that he has to act quickly. In terms of product policy, B2C marketing tries to provide the respective product with a few additional, preferably sales-promoting characteristics beyond the core benefit. Examples of this are designs with a very high recognition value or special packaging that is particularly easy to open and close again. This also makes it easier to stand out from the competition and to bind customers even more strongly to your own brands. There are two basic options for the distribution of products: Direct distribution and distribution via intermediaries. One of the most important levers in B2C marketing is the communication policy. Nowadays, products often differ only slightly. With the help of communication policy, it is possible to stand out from the competition. Branding, whether in the upper or lower price segment, is important here. If a customer recognises a brand, the probability that he will ultimately decide to buy a product of that brand increases.